Manufacturer: Shenango China
User: Exchange Buffet
Date of sugar and creamer: Unknown, but believed to pre-date 1912
Notes: Based in part on info taken from "Building a Six-Million-Dollar Business on Trust," by James True – on Google Books – the Exchange Buffet was a restaurant chain in New York City with some 35 locations and at least 42 cigar stands. Its restaurants were unique in several ways.
Although they staged a traditional cafeteria line, they also offered the option of ordering from a menu and customers were responsible for tallying their own bills – on the honor system. In his article, True noted that "the company considers all customers to be absolutely honest" and said, "This system has caused an invaluable amount of favorable comment and is undoubtedly the chief reason" for the chain's success.
In addition, True wrote about a 1913-14 advertising campaign launched by the Exchange Buffet that quoted Henry DeJongh, the company's president, as saying: "We are attempting to sell the men of New York on our restaurants, and convince them that every Exchange Buffet is 'A Man's Place.'" That misogynistic approach translated to the restaurant's menus that also advertised "A Man's Place."
The first Exchange Buffet (located at 7 New Street) started on Sept. 4, 1885 and was built opposite the New York Stock Exchange – the source of its name and also the source of its first patrons. And rather than being a new advertising ploy as True's article would suggest, the first mention of the restaurant in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle heralded that it "opened its doors to men-only customers."
By Oct. 13, 1922, the Exchange Buffet Company was being traded on the floor of the stock exchange, according to a New York Times article. It had been incorporated at that point for nine years.
The Exchange Buffet Corporation, as its name had evolved, filed for bankruptcy on Nov. 8, 1963, again according to the Times. "At one time the cafeterias were regarded as a symbol of man's fundamental honesty. But, a spokesman for the corporation said yesterday that the policy of trusting customers probably had contributed to the concern's financial troubles."
Numerous sources cited the chain's nickname: E & B, for "Eat 'em and Beat 'em," referring to the fast-food nature of the restaurants that allowed the customers to "eat and beat it" out of there.
From its inception, the chain's logo was the large EB in a circle; see the photos above with the bullseye design of red, green and yellow. The open sugar has been identified as Shenango but its date is unknown. The creamer, also believed to be Shenango, has no backstamp. However, this pattern is believed to pre-date the 1912 footed bowl with green pattern and no topmark.
For related info:
Exchange Buffet 2 by Shenango China
Exchange Buffet 3 by Shenango China and McNicol China
Ephemera photos contributed by Ed Babcock